Many people have experienced behavior in their dogs that leads the owner to believe that dogs are capable of feeling emotions similar to those felt by humans.
Not only do dogs appear to experience a wide range of emotions, studies show that dogs recognize emotions in other dogs and in humans.
The results of a study by a team of animal behaviour experts and psychologists from the University of Lincoln, UK, and University of Sao Paulo, Brazil led the researchers to believe that dogs truly recognise emotions in humans and in other dogs and can discriminate between positive and negative emotions in both humans and dogs (Albuquerque, et al., 2015).\
In another study, researchers from the University of Mexico studied how dogs pay close attention to human faces to guide their behavior (for example, by recognizing their owner and his/her emotional state using visual cues). They trained dogs to stay still and awake inside an MRI scanner and showed the dogs pictures of human faces with different expressions along with pictures of inanimate objects.
They found that when the dogs looked at the facial expressions, the same areas of the brain were triggered in dogs as in humans in terms of reading and understanding facial cues (Cuaya, Hernández-Pérez, & Concha, 2016).
An earlier Hungarian study also using MRI also showed similarities in how dogs and humans process emotions. (Andics, Gacsi, Farago, Kis, & Miklosi, 2014)
A 2014 study on jealousy in dogs found that, when owners gave attention and affection to another person or animal, dogs seemed to engage in attention seeking behavior like pushing between the owner and the rival and or vocalizing (Harris & Provoust, 2014).
The idea that dogs are capable of jealousy relates to the newer research on animal social cognition that reveals that dogs have sophisticated social-cognitive abilities (Harris & Provoust, 2014) and have been shown to use social cues better than chimpanzees, who until now have been generally thought to be the animals most like humans in their social abilities.
Dogs have been shown to have symptoms similar to people suffering from clinical depression, anxiety and neurosis. Service dogs who were retired from the US military when they could no longer carry out missions have been found to suffer from a condition now referred to as Canine Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (CPTSD). After having suffered at least one traumatic event may exhibit distress and a number of behavioral problems similar to their human military counterparts. (Cheney, 2012)
Recognizing that a dog’s emotional state may impact learning and that a dog’s body language reflects their emotions, researchers evaluated the posture of dogs while learning through operant conditioning and concluded that dog’s body language during operant conditioning was related to their success rate during training.
These researchers found that dogs who displayed behaviors such as wide-eyes, closed mouth, erect ears, and forward and high tail carriage, without wagging or with short and quick wagging, related to high achievement results. The findings suggest that certain postures were related to the dog’s learning level during operant conditioning and that being aware of these postures could be helpful in understanding canine emotion during learning. (Hasegawa, Ohtani, & Ohta, 2014)